(space) CCPV & NICEV

Welcome to, a comprehensive source of health information for singers and other professional voice users. Here you will find timely references regarding all aspects of vocal wellness, as well as onsite and online wellness, therapy and instruction services for singers, corporate speakers, actors, lawyers, teachers and other professional voice users.


Karen Wicklund


©1997 All Rights Reserved

Dr. Karen Wicklund
Presented for: NATS National Workshop, Tucson, AZ and Richard Miller Workshop, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand, January, 2002

I. Introduction and goals of the lecture

spaceA. Stress defined
spaceB. A year in the life of a stressed-out singer

II. Fight or Flight Response

spaceA. Natural reaction of the body to any demand- positive or negative

spaceB. Perception of a threat, and of one's resources

spaceC. Stages of Fight/flight response
spacespace1. arousal
spacespace2. resistance to stressor
spacespace3. exhaustion

spaceD. Positive vs. negative stress

III. Cognition and Stress

spaceA. Four determinants of Stress (Feedback experiment with
student) (Peter Lang)
spacespace1. The actual event or environment
spacespace2. The individual's perception of the event
spacespace3. The individual's perception of personal coping abilities
spacespace4. The individual's actual coping resources

spaceB. Optimism vs. Pessimism (Scheier and Carver-Life Orientation

spacespace1. Genetics vs. Learning
spacespace2. Benefits of Optimism
spacespace3. Pessimists' responses to stress

spaceC. Kobasa's Hardiness scale (Locus of Control)

spacespace1. Internally Oriented (more responsible for self)
spacespace2. Externally Oriented (more anxious and depressed)

IV. Stress Response in Singers

spaceA. Tolkmitt and Sherer (1986)
spaceB. Lang (1988)
spaceC. Morse and Faust (1982)

V. Stressors common to all musicians

VI. Significance of Life stressors

spaceA. Stress Exhaustion symptom chart

spaceB. Life Change Index (Thomas Holmes) finds relationship
between amount of change in people's lives and development
of major illness.

VI. Stress Management Skills (Three-pronged approach)

spacespace1. Nutrition
spacespace2. Exercise
spacespace3. Progressive Muscle Relaxation
spacespace4. Deep Breathing, Meditation
spacespace5. Rest
spacespace6. specific skills for musicians

spacespace1. Rational/Irrational thinking exercises
spacespace2. An exercise in negative thinking
spacespace3. The woman in the car (Positive self-talk)
spacespace4. Man with hammer
spacespace5. Time management
spacespace6. Assertiveness
spacespace7. AAA BC's Model- Albert Ellis
spacespacespacea. problem solving for an audience member
spacespace8. specific skills for musicians

spaceC. SOCIAL
spacespace1. Support systems- Bubble worksheet
spacespace2. Vacation/change of scenery
spacespace3. Pets
spacespace4. Hobbies
spacespace5. Knowing where to go for help

VII. Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) practice

Selected Stress Management Slides

More on

Voice Lessons & Therapy
Foreign Accent Reduction / ESL
Belt Workshop (2006)

Singer's Wellness:

Children's Vocal Wellness
Learning Disabilities References
NATS & New Zealand Workshops
NATS Convention Poster Papers
Singer's Herbal Regimen
Singer's Daily Wellness Regimen
Singer's Wellness Model
Wicklund Bio
Wicklund Audio Clips
Wicklund Publications
Wicklund Voice Studio News
Wicklund Wellness Offerings

Important: The information on this website is intended for educational purposes only. It is not provided in order to diagnose, prescribe, or treat any disease, illness, or injured condition of the body. The authors, publisher, printer(s), and distributor(s)/website provider(s) accept no responsibility for such use. Those individuals suffering from any disease, illness, or injury should consult their physician.

Last updated November 8, 2014

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